"The 1865 sheriff's census of Washington County, Arkansas, is the only county census known to exist from this enumeration. Its importance lies in having been taken just nine months after the end of the Civil War when the county was still recovering from major loss of life and property." Destruction of homes, schools, farms, and businesses, and confiscation of livestock and crops was wrought by both Union and Confederate forces. Washington County's 442 claims for personal property reimbursement filed with the Southern Claims Commission after the war were by far the greatest number of any Arkansas county. The war took a heavy toll on the county population which was down by 9,000 from the 1860 federal census. The census contains names, age groupings, and groupings by gender for white persons; free persons of color are identified only by name and gender. The census is arranged chronologically and includes names of several (but not all) townships: Clear Creek, Elm Spring, Mars Hill, Illinois, Vineyard, Cove Creek, Mountain, West Fork, White River, Richland, Prairie, and the city of Fayetteville. Cane Hill and Brush Creek Townships are not named, even though they existed when the census was taken. This book may enable researchers with roots in northwest Arkansas to identify their ancestors who first appeared or who had remained in Washington County during the difficult years of 1861 through 1865. Agricultural statistics are on the microfilm from which this information was copied, but are not included in this book.